Guide to the different programming languages in simple terms.

An overview of the main languages

  • Overview
  • Discussion
  1. Carolyn
    Programming languages are used to make computer programs and software; in other words they tell a computer what to do and how to behave. A programming language is basically a form of written text code which instructs the computer to do a specific task.

    There are many different types of programming languages, with new ones created every year, and they vary greatly in terms of functionality and complexity. It is your end goal that will determine which languages you should learn. Read on to find out which are the most useful programming languages to learn, what they are used for, what salary you can expect and where you can study them online.

    1. Java

    Java is an object-oriented compiled programming language used to develop enterprise software, web-based content, games and mobile apps, as well as the Android operating system. For example, it allows you to play online games, upload photos, take virtual tours and use interactive maps. It is one of the most in-demand languages on the job market. (It is not the same as JavaScript).

    Average salary expectations for Java programmers: $95,000 a year

    Where can I learn it online?

    2. C Language

    C Language is the oldest and most common language which provides the basis of other popular languages, such as C#, Java, JavaScript and Python. It is usually used for implementing operating systems and embedded applications. Given that many other languages are founded on C language, it is best to learn C (and C++) before moving on to others.

    3. C++

    C++ was developed to enhance the C language as an object-oriented programming language used to build software, video games &mobile apps. C++ is the language behind major software like Firefox, Winamp and Adobe programs.

    Average salary expectations for C++ programmers: $90,000 a year

    Where can I learn it online?

    4. C#

    C# (C Sharp) was developed by Microsoft as part of its .NET framework. It combes elements of C and C++ to produce a general-purpose programming language used to develop software for Microsoft and Windows platforms. Its capabilities are very similar to those of Java, and is a highly recommended language to learn if you are looking to develop applications for Windows-based platforms.

    Average salary expectations for C# programmers: $66,000 a year

    Where can I learn it online?

    5. Objective-C

    Objective-C is a general-purpose, object-oriented programming language based on C and used by the Apple developers. It is used to create iPhone apps for iOS, which makes it very much in demand in today’s market although it cannot be used for Android applications.

    Average salary expectations for Objective-C programmers: $70,000 a year

    Where can I learn it online?

    6. PHP

    PHP (Hypertext Processor) is a popular language which can be used within HTML and used to build dynamic websites and apps. PHP powers millions of websites, including Wordpress, Digg and Facebook. It is an open-source language allowing developers to use and modify existing modules to achieve the desired outcome. PHP is a very useful and easy language to learn if you are looking to develop a career in web development as it has a very large job market.

    Average salary expectations for PHP programmers: $80,000 a year

    Where can I learn it online?

    7. Python

    Python is used for developing websites and apps, and is considered to be a relatively easy language to learn due to its simplicity, readability and compact syntax. It can be used on its own or as part of another framework, such as Django. Python has risen in popularity recently and is the language behind some famous sites including,, and

    Average salary expectations for Python programmers: $83,000 a year

    Where can I learn it online?

    8. Ruby

    Ruby is similar to Python and was designed to be simple and easy to write. It is used for building websites and apps, and powers the web development framework Ruby on Rails which is used on a number of well-known websites including Github, Scribd, Yammer, Shopify, and Groupon.

    Average salary expectations for Ruby programmers: $90,000 a year

    Where can I learn this online?

    9. JavaScript

    JavaScript is based on the C language and is known for its versatility as it can be used cross numerous web browsers. It runs inside a client browser and is commonly used in website advertising, analytics and widgets. JavaScript on its own is not enough to land a job but it is an essential language for any web developer combined with other server side scripting languages.

    Average salary expectations for programmers with JavaScript skills: $88,000 a year

    Where can I learn this online?

    10. SQL

    SQL (Structured Query Language) is a purpose-built database query language which interacts with the underlying database of an application in a structured way. It is a very simple language to learn due to its similarity to the English language syntax. Like JavaScript, SQL on its own won’t lead to a job, but it can certainly help with job prospects as part of your programming skills package.

    Average salary expectations for programmers with SQL skills: $69,000 a year

    Where can I learn this online?



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